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FALL, I960 

TICISM by PERRY MILLER (Delivered at the Thoreau 
Society I960 Annual Meeting) 

In 1842 Emerson made a special trip to the State 
House in order to secure a set of reports recently 
published by the Commonwealth itemizing the flora 
and fauna of the state. Then, he says, he "set 
Henry Thoreau on the good track of giving an ac- 
count of them in the Dial, explaining to him the 
felicity of the subject for him as it admits of the 
narrative of all his boatcraft & fishcraft." The 
young Thoreau meekly followed his master's direc- 
tive — as a few years later the recalcitrant 
Thoreau emphatically would not. Margaret Fuller, 
who did not share Emerson's admiration for the 
rustic genius, had given up the editorship of The 
Dial at the beginning of 1842, and so Emerson was 
able to print Henry's first original piece in the 
July issue, under the title "The Natural History 
of Massachusetts." 

Emerson, like many later Thoreauvians, thought 
of Thoreau as being primarily a naturalist, a rural 
poet of the meadows and woods, a preternaturally 
accurate observer (as Emerson was not) of phenomena. 
Emerson was never to disabuse himself of this mis- 
conception, though he had momentary glimerings of 
bewilderment and at times almost recognized that 
Thoreau had a mind. But in the funeral oration for 
Thoreau, published in the Atlantic in 1862, he made 
an enduring incubus out of his own prejudice by 
such sentences as "He knew the country like a fox 
or a bird, and passed through it as freely by paths 
of his own." If even the sensitive Emerson, with 
all his chances of first-hand knowledge, held this 
to be the essential Thoreau, it is no wonder that 
later admirers, who oddly enough have often taken 
on some characteristics of a sentimental cult, con- 
strue any effort to submit him to a more critical 
or intellectual analysis as a denigration of their 

Yet "The Natural History of Massachusetts" 
should have warned Emerson, as it still should warn 
us. Thoreau did indeed demonstrate his vast famil- 
iarity with the concrete, the specific, but he 
pronounced the official reports to be limited and 
imperfect volumes because they were merely factual. 
As far as they went, they were admirable, and he 
was the last to condemn them; yet he was obliged to 
add "Let us not underrate the value of a fact; it 
will one day flower in a truth." If Emerson paused 
over this sentence, he probably smiled with the 
pleasure of seeing an ingenious variant on one of 
his favorite themes. Those who like Margaret 
Fuller or James Russell Lowell dismissed Henry as 
a bungling imitator of Emerson — even, according 
to some of them, modelling his nose on Emerson's — 
would have concluded that here he was commencing 
his career of stealing neighbor Emerson's apples. 
Few if any at that time could comprehend, and today 
the awareness even for the most devoted student is 
hard to acquire, that this sentence was prophetic 

of Thoreau 's whole artistic endeavor. Yet under- 
standing dawns when we read further into the para- 
graph and find him saying, ominously, "He has 
something demoniacal in him, who can discern a law, 
or couple two facts." What? we should ask at this 
point — if we are sufficiently jolted — do facts 
sweetly flower into truths by and of themselves? 
If so then what need is there of demoniacal assist- 
ance? And if it is demoniacal to couple two facts, 
where does the demon dwell? Could it possibly be 
that he inhabits what Wordsworth called, and all 
Yankee Transcendentalists repeated after him, "our 
meddling intellect" which, according to the high- 
priest of Romantic Naturalism botanizes on grand- 
mother's grave and murders to dissect? 

The story of America's initial hostility to 
Wordsworth — manifested in virtually all depart- 
mants of the indigenous intelligence — and then 
of his gradual acceptance as the foremost poet of 
the age, is a familiar tale. Emerson himself had, 
in the 1820' s, been repelled by him, but in a 
lecture of 1838 he declared to Boston, and he was 
later to make the point even more emphatically in 
The Dial , his conversion. Whether Thoreau heard 
this particular lecture or not, the passage is 
worth repeating, because it indicates what Thoreau 
would start with, he never having to learn by a 
long process of overcoming an inherited opposition, 
what Emerson with great difficulty had finally 
grasped but on which Emerson's hold was never to 
be as tight as Henry's: 

The fame of Wordsworth is one of the most 
instructive facts in modern literature when 
it is considered how utterly hostile his 
genius at first seemed to the reigning taste, 
& I may add with what feeble poetic talents 
his great & steadily growing dominion has 
been established. More than any poet his 
success has been not his own but that of the 
Idea or principle which possessed him & which 
he has rarely succeeded in adequately express- 

The last sentence is the heart of the drama. 
In our perspective we may indeed say that Words- 
worth succeeded in adequately expressing his great 
"Idea" only in The Prelude, which was not to be- 
come public property until after his death in 1850. 
Yet magnificent as that statement is, and funda- 
mental though it be for our understanding of Words- 
worth, it is astonishing how in 1850, when it was 
at long last revealed, the meaning of it had al- 
ready been absorbed. Thoreau does not often 
mention Wordsworth, but the very opening segments 
of the Journal show that he hardly needed to. He 
was already a Wordsworthian, and in that sense a 
child of the Romantic era. 

The original draft of the sentence about the 
fact flowering into truth was entered in December 
1837, when Thoreau was twenty and just out of 
Harvard College. Even more revealing is a praise 
of Goethe in the same month which approves of his 
being satisfied "with giving an exact description 
of objects as they appear to him." This, Thoreau 
pontificates, is the trait to be prized, and its 
skill consists in the device whereby "even the 
reflections of the author do not interfere with 
his descriptions." For Thoreau had thus already 
completely comprehended one of the major problems 
of the Romantic movement — for that portion of 
Romanticism preoccupied with the new interpreta- 
tion of Nature it was the major problem — of 

striking and maintaining the delicate balance be- 
tween object and reflection, of fact and truth, of 
minute observation and generalized concept. There 
can be no doubt that Thoreau was made aware of the 
problem at least in part by Emerson's Nature, which 
with its Platonic ascent from the lowly level of 
"Commodity" into the intellectual vistas of "Pros- 
pects" sought to offer an original method for com- 
bining the two poles of the Romantic dilemma. But 
it does seem to me that from the beginning Henry 
possessed an insight which, though it too must be 
located within the larger frame-work of Romantic 
Naturalism, is very different from Emerson's. The 
contrast becomes vivid if you put Emerson's famous 
sentences about becoming a transparent eyeball and 
about the currents of universal being circulating 
through him alongside this entry of Thoreau 1 s, on 
March 3, 1839, on "The Poet": 

He must be something more than natural — even 
supernatural. Nature will not speak through 
but along with him. His voice will not pro- 
ceed from her midst, but, breathing on her, 
will make her the expression of his thought. 
He then poetizes when he takes a fact out of 
nature int» spirit. He speaks without refer- 
ence to time or place. His thought is one 
world, her another. He is another Nature, — 
Nature's brother. Kindly offices do they 
perform for one another. Each publishes the 
other's truth. 

It was from this duality of vision — what in 
Walden he would call "doubleness" and which, he 
would say, often made its possessor a bad neighbor 
— that he was able to extract from the Journal and 
put into "The Natural History" such contradictory 
assertations as, on the one hand, "Nature will bear 
the closest inspection; she invites us to lay our 
eye level with the smallest leaf, and take an in- 
sect view of its plain," and then, on the other, 
invoking in full awareness of its intellectualized 
nature one of the grand conceptual techniques of 
Biblical scholarship, this remark, "When I walk in 
the woods, I am reminded that a wise purveyor has 
been there before me; my most delicate experience 
is typified there." If at one And the same time 
Nature is closely inspected in microscopic detail 
and yet through the ancient system of typology 
makes experience intelligible, then Thoreau will 
have solved the Romantic riddle, have mastered the 
destructive Romantic Irony. Seen in such a context, 
his life was an unrelenting exertion to hold this 
precarious stance. In the end, the impossibility 
of sustaining it killed him. But not until, at 
least in Walden, he had for a breathless moment, 
held the two in solution, fused and yet still kept 
separate, he and Nature publishing each other's 
truth. Surely, it was a demoniacal enterprise from 
start to finish. This is why, it seems to me, that 
Thoreau can at long last be seen as a major writer 
of his century, not because he also happened to 
know boatcraft and fishcraft. 

When the Prelude was published, the by then great 
host of Wordsworth's followers found in Book XII a 
passage wiich they might well wish he had published 
in the first decade of the century (when it actu- 
ally was written), for it would have saved them a 
great deal of trouble in groping their way to what 
Emerson called his "Idea." In a magnificent apos- 
trophe to the "Soul of Nature" Wordsworth condemns 
anew what he held to be the vice of the eighteenth 
century, its lust for comparing scene with scene, 

pampering the taste with novelties of color and 
proportion, and so rendering taste insensible to 
the spirit of a particular place. He himself had 
once let his eye tyrannize over him, so that for 
awhile even he went about seeking for the pictur- 

Still craving combinations of new forms,/New 
pleasure, wider empire for the sight,/Proud of 
her own endowments, and rejoiced/To lay the 
inner faculties asleep. 

let all this while he had beside him his sister 
Dorothy, who finally showed him how to be an en- 
thusiast without permitting the eye to become 
mistress of the heart. 

She welcomed what was given, and craved no 


Whate'er the scene presented to her view 

That was the best, to that she was attuned 

By her benign simplicity of life. 

Tet probably this passage would not have been 
really too helpful to such a creature as Henry 
because Wordsworth says that Dorothy's freedom from 
false notions of the picturesque in Nature was a 
feminine trait, that she was content to remain 
passively receptive because she was "wise as women 
are." However, we have become of late increasingly 
aware that in many of the most characteristic fig- 
ures of the Romantic movement there flourished a 
special type of exquisite emotional sensibility, a 
warmth of temperament and a disposition to let 
experience come to them rather than that they 
should go forth, sword in hand, to conquer it. 
Goethe's Werther is the prototype of them all, 
which the supreme man of action in the era, Napo- 
leon, read and re-read. We may think also of 
Constant's Adolphe, of Keats' Endymion, of the 
cult of Chatterton, of the personality of Robert 
Schumann. It would be too much to say that these 
creations or the creators were "feminine" in 
nature, but they are not robustly masculine as had 
been Dr. Johnson or Fielding. Each of them, 
whether an imagined creation or an imaginative 
creator, is what Thomas Mann (whose comprehension 
of the Romantic spirit was profound) called a 
"delicate child of life." In all American litera- 
ture Henry Thoreau is the one to whom this char- 
acterization perfectly applies. Let us remind our- 
selves, one of the earliest and most appealing of 
Thoreau' s poems is, of course, "Lately, alas, I 
knew a gentle boy." 

So it was not necessary that the example of 
Dorothy Wordsworth be put before the young Tran- 
scendalists in order that they should learn the 
inner secret of Romantic receptivity. They had such 
tuition as Wordsworth's lines on "Tinturn Abbey," 
and on the superiority of an impulse from the 
vernal wood over all intellectual instruction if 
only they would learn to come forth from science 
and art "with a heart/That watches and receives." 
Above all, they had the "Preface" to the 1800 
edition of Lyrical Ballads . I do not propose to 
argue that Thoreau found the origin of his own 
"Idea" in this document, or even to insist that he 
read it (though the chances are all on the side 
that he did). Even if he never looked at it, we 
can find in it the most precise exposition of his 
ambition as a writer and his aspiration as an 

To read the "Preface" with Thoreau in mind is to 

realize anew how different was the situation of 
the Romantic revolutionary in England (as indeed 
in all Europe) from that of the American. The 
chief thrust of Wordsworth is against the poetic 
diction of the Neo-Classical age, the formalized 
and stereotyped abstract adjectives of Pope and 
Johnson. His great plea is that poetry use "the 
real language of men." We comprehend from his 
fervent argument how terribly dominating Neo- 
Classical verse had been in literary England. 
Provincial America endeavored to imitate the mode 
— witness Freneau and the Connecticut Wits — 
but we never had a poet who so tyrannized over 
our native taste as did Pope in England. Hence 
when youths like Emerson felt the impulse from 
the vernal wood stirring in their hearts, they 
had to exert themselves not so much in dethroning 
a vested interest in technique as merely in lib- 
erating themselves from a culture that they now 
perceived was prosaic and uncreative. They 
simply had to disassociate themselves from what 
Emerson pungently called "the corpse-cold Unitar- 
ianism of Brattle Street and Harvard College." 
Or, like Henry, they could resign from all the 
societies they had never joined — including the 
Thoreau Society! 

Hence what meant the most to them in Words- 
worth 1 s "Preface" were the hints he threw out 
about a new kind of utterance — he was talking 
about poetry but his prescriptions would apply as 
well to prose — in which the writer would strive 
by might and main to look steadily at his subject. 
The most thrilling paragraph to the generation of 
Thoreau would be that wherein Wordsworth rejected 
as idle and unmanly the faintness of heart which, 
despairing of ever producing a language as fitting 
for expression of the passion as the real passion 
itself, abjectly concluded that the artist should 
become a translator and substitute excellencies 
of another kind for those which are unattainable 
in speech. By this specious attempt to surpass 
his subject, said Wordsworth, the writer condemns 
his material to an inferior status, and thus sly- 
ly exalts himself over it. No, nor fidelity to 
the thing, strict application to the object, no 
underestimation of the value of the fact — these 
convictions and only these will create a litera- 
ture "not standing upon external testimony, but 
carried alive into the heart by passion; truth 
which is its own testimony, which gives competence 
and confidence to the tribunal to which it appeals, 
and receives them from the same tribunal." 

As we know, Wordsworth had a long struggle ex- 
plaining to his contemporaries that by his phrases 
"the language really spoken by men" and his "look- 
ing steadily at the subject" he did not mean what 
we would term photographic reproduction of the 
scene or of the human face. Romantic Nature was 
not — for better or for worse — what the next 
generation would salute as "Realism." Wordsworth 
never taught the neophyte that a daguerreotype of 
Walden Pond should be esteemed more highly than a 
truly poetic rendition of it. He insisted that 
poetry have form, that it cast into metrical 
arrangements the materials carried alive into the 
heart, that passion come into literature not as 
animal cries or exclamations of pain, but as 
emotion recollected in tranquility. This meant 
that while no a priori concept of the picturesque, 
or of dignity or of excellence, should be imposed 
from without, that there would be an organic 
growth of the concept out of a fervent devotion 
to objective truth. The fact, in other words, 

would flower into a truth — if, that is, the poet 
could bring an adequate passion to his portraiture. 
Thoreau, therefore, would not be betraying or 
patronizing or insulting his material when he open- 
ly admitted that he was "for convenience putting 
the experience of two years into one." That was 
not illegitimate manipulation of reality, it was 
a way of being "something more than natural," of 
becoming "Nature's brother." 

By the time Thoreau graduated from Harvard, this 
Romantic aesthetic had been widely domesticated in 
America. The principle agent in reconciling a 
suspicious public to what had at first seemed a 
nonsensical or even subversive paradox was land- 
scape painting. In terms comprehensible to the 
average intelligence the Hudson River School, as 
historians now label them, were dramatizing Words- 
worth's great "Idea." Indeed, I am convinced 
that one immensely helpful way to deepen our appre- 
ciation of what Thoreau was seeking is to look 
closely at certain pictures of Thomas Cole (not 
his grandiose tableaus but his smaller scenes), 
Asher Durand or Thomas Doughty. Especially I 
would say Durand, for in him appears that union of 
graphic detail and organizing design which the 
disciple of Wordsworth ever strove to attain. An 
influential periodical of the time, the Knicker- 
bocker , said of him in 1853 — just as Walden was 
receiving its last revision — that "His composit- 
ions, while faithful to the truth of detail, com- 
bine a beautiful sentiment, which is felt by the 
observer^ and it is in this in which his true 
greatness consists." All the implications of this 
sentence, advertised by its use of "while" along 
with "combine", show how, even in the complacent 
circles which subscribed to the Knickerbocker , the 
Romantic "Idea" had become an orthodoxy. Hence 
the more opulent in these circles paid high prices 
for the landscapes of Durand and his fellows. We 
might surmise that by the same token they should 
have recognized in Walden a prose counterpart to 
their beloved painters. But, as is a matter of 
record, they bought the paintings but never the 

There are a hundred reasons why comfortable 
citizens of the Republic in 1854 would hang over 
their fireplace a landscape by Durand or Doughty, 
at the wildness of which they might gaze without 
perturbation, and still be horrified at the wild- 
ness of Walden — if indeed they so much as heard 
of it. Among these reasons, however, must be 
enumerated — or at least I shall venture to list 
it — the fact that Thoreau managed so radical a 
penetration into "the truth of detail", and then 
so blatant an assertion of what the Knickerbocker 
called "sentiment", that the "combination" — to 
use again the catchword of the era — seemed either 
grotesque or truly demoniacal. Or another way to 
put it is to say that Henry Thoreau took the basic 
premise of the Romantic Age more seriously than 
most romantics were able to accept. 

I would not unduly belabor this point, yet I 
would like to suggest that it indicates the peren- 
nial and never quite definable fascination of 
Walden . Thoreau spoke it as bluntly as possible 
in the chapter he called "Sounds," and most suc- 
cinctly in the first sentence. Books, he there 
said, are things in dialect and are provincial, 
and if we are confined solely to them, "we are in 
danger of forgetting the language which all things 
and events speak without metaphor, which alone is 
copious and standard." Consequently Walden is one 
of the supreme achievements of the Romantic Move- 

ment — or to speak accurately, of Romantic Natur- 
alism. Mr Shanley has proved beyond the shadow of 
any doubt that it was a conscious, a deliberate 
creation; it was not and is not some spontaneous 
inpulse from the vernal wood, although unfortunate- 
ly many of its modern champions pretend that it 
was. No, it is truly emotion, but emotion ostens- 
ibly recollected in tranquility. Yet it is assur- 
edly emotion, passion. There is no substitution 
for the original experience, there are no excell- 
encies of diction contrived so as to suggest an 
inferiority of the original to the narration. 
Still, it is not a mere recital, item by item, 
atomic moment after moment, of two years beside 
the pond. It is a magnificent autobiography, 
faithful in every detail to the setting, arising 
to the level of a treatise on imagination and 
taste, and all this without ever becoming didactic. 
When seen in such a perspective, it can be placed 
beside The Prelude/ It is the "growth of a poet's 
mind", and despite all its wealth of concrete 
imagery it is centered not upon Nature, but upon 
Nature's brother, the intelligence of the artist. 

I need hardly observe that in this century the 
entire philosophy of what I call Romantic Natural- 
ism has been attacked from innumerable sides and 
is generally thought to be completely discredited. 
In painting, the Hudson River School of represent- 
ation gave way to a succession of infinitely more 
sophisticated methods until eventually the object 
disappeared altogether and an artist simply paint- 
ed his idea. In poetry the creative impulse for 
several decades has been calling for a repudiation 
of the identification of mind with thing, for the 
formulation of a poetry which shall be entirely 
intellectual, metaphorical, artifical. That dispo- 
sition which in recent English writing has been 
expressed in Teats, in Ezra Pound, in T. S. Eliot, 
sees in the artist a manipulator, an inventor of 
symbols and images, who severs himself from Nature, 
who deliberately violates her, pillages her for 
schemes of his own devising. And even Robert 
Frost, who like Wordsworth insists that poetry must 
keep close to the language of ordinary human talk, 
reminds us again and again that we must avoid the 
pathetic fallacy of assuming any correspondence 
between human emotions and natural fact. If one 
is versed in country things, he memorably says, 
one does not suppose phoebes weep over the desol- 
ation of an abandoned farmhouse. Indeed, in one 
of his most powerful proclamations, "The Most of 
It," Frost seems to be deriding all the Henry 
Thoreaus of his past by describing a "he" who kept 
the universe alone, who wanted from Nature "some- 
one else additional to him" and who received in 
answer only the sudden eruption from the woods of 
a great buck, an utterly inhuman beast. 

If the twentieth-century judgment of the Roman- 
tic aesthetic is correct, then Henry Thoreau is 
one of its monumental failures and martyrs, along 
with Shelley and Novalis. Neither he nor they were 
able to answer the terrible question of whether, 
once they committed themselves to the proposition 
that their most delicate experience was typified 
in Nature, they were thereafter actually writing 
about Nature — about Walden Pond, for instance — 
or about nothing more than their delicious exper- 
iences. If in reality they were only projecting 
their emotions onto the Natural setting, if the 
phoebes do not weep for human miseries, then their 
effort to find someone additional to themselves 
was doomed to ghastly defeat. In this view, the 

career of Henry Thoreau is as tragic as that of 
King Lear. He too sacrificed himself needlessly 
to a delusion. 

In his first organized statement, Thoreau 
could say, with all the confidence that a Lear 
had in the love of his daughters, that when he 
detects a beauty in any recess of Nature he is 
reminded of the inexpressible privacy of a life, 
that he may rest content with nothing more than 
the sight and the sound. On the premise of that 
doctrine, he may properly say no more than "I 
am affected by the sight of the cabins of muskrats," 
or than "I am the wiser in respect to all knowled- 
ges, and better qualified for all fortunes, for 
knowing that there is a minnow in the brook." In 
the glowing confidence of these aphorisms lurks the 
assumption that moral law and natural law contain 
analogies, and that for this reason the writer may 
safely record facts without metaphors, since truths 
are bound to sprout from them. The later portions 
of Thoreau 's Journal , those after 185^+, with their 
tedious recordings of mere observations, of measure- 
ments, of statistics, seem to attest not only the 
dwindling of his vitality but the exhaustion of 
the theory upon which he commenced to be an author 
in the first place. He immolated himself on the pyre 
of an untenable concept of literary creation. 

And yet, he refuses to be consumed. Expound 
Walden, if you will, as a temporary and so an empty 
triumph of the Romantic dream, which must therefore 
diminish with the recession of that dream, the 
book refuses to go into the archeological oblivion 
of, shall I say? Shelly' s The Revolt of Islam . 
Robert Frost, while objecting with all his Yankee 
soul to Thoreau 's epistemology, still proclaims 
that with him Thoreau is a "passion." The obvious 
answer, or rather the easy one, is that Thoreau 
was a great writer, and so his pages survive in 
spite of changes in metaphysical fashions. But 
that is truly an easy, a luxurious way of salvag- 
ing our poet. The more difficult, but I believe 
the more honest and, in the final accounting, the 
more laudatory way is to say that the Romantic 
balance, or its "Idea" of combination, of fusing 
the fact and the idea, the specific and the gen- 
eral, is still a challenge to the mind and to the 
artist. Thoreau was both a Transcendentalist and 
a Natural Historian. He never surrendered on 
either front, though the last years of the Journal 
show how desperate was the effort to keep both 
standards aloft. He said, in the central concept- 
ual passage of Walden, that he wanted to drive 
life into a corner, to publish its meaness if it 
proved to be mean, but that if it should turn out 
to be sublime, then to give a true account of its 
sublimity. "The universe constantly and obedient- 
ly answers to our conceptions" was his resolute 
determination. For what more sublime a cause, 
even though it be a questionable thesis, can a 
man expend himself? 

by M. Higashiyama (Kwansei Gakuin University, 
Nishinomiya, Japan. ) 

(Editor's note: The following is an abstract of 
the doctoral dissertation recently completed at 
Kwansei Gakuin University by Prof. Higashiyama. ) 

The contemporary writers of Thoreau, such as 
Emerson, Whitman, Poe and Melville, have been 
studied in Japan to a certain extent, but in com- 

parison with those writers only a few scholars stud- 
ied Thoreau. The writer of this thesis tried to 
open a new field of studying Thoreau. 

In Chapter I, a historical research of Thoreau 
appreciation in England and the United States is 
done. How Thoreau has been misunderstood by people 
and critics in his lifetime as well as after his 
death is traced through periodicals. Thoreau ap- 
preciation took a favorable turn after World War I, 
when American literature became independent of Brit- 
ish literature and American writers became to be re- 
evaluated. The influence spread among the English 
speaking people. Thoreau' s works including the 
Journals were published and the Thoreau Society was 

In Chapter II, the writer describes the geographi- 
cal background of New England where Thoreau lived 
and also explains the political, social and cultural 
backgrounds from the beginning to the middle of the 
19th century. Though the backgrounds are roughly 
explained without having a close connection with the 
works by Thoreau, the relations of Thoreau with his 
friends in his private life are minutely studied. 

In Chapter III, the spiritual environment of 
Thoreau is studied. The spiritual traditions which 
influenced Thoreau, i.e., Puritanism in the 17th 
century and Rationalism in the 18th century, are 
studied and how they took part in the formation of 
Thoreau' s philosophy is cleared. The writer has 
been long interested in the problem of religion and 
American literature, but here the problem is treat- 
ed with Thoreau as the central figure. 

In Chapter IV, Thoreau 's view of nature, the cen- 
tral problem in Thoreau 's philosophy, is examined. 
The writer thinks the Journal is the most important 
material among Thoreau' s works, so that the view of 
nature is examined mainly in the Journal. From the 
examination, the three stages, i.e., the observation 
of natural phenomena, the mystic experience in 
which man nature become one, and God revealed in 
nature, are found. Also three characteristics of 
nature, i.e., simplicity, wildness and symbolism, 
are found. If the writer compared these with the 
views of nature in the contemporary writers, at 
least in Emerson, and located the position of Tho- 
reau 's view among them, the problem would have been 
more cleared. 

In Chapter V, how Thoreau who had the above-men- 
tioned view of nature was influenced by nature and 
his experimental life at Walden and how nature in- 
fluenced the formation of Thoreau 's character are 
studied. The interactive relations between natural 
phenomena and Thoreau who spent two years and two 
months in Walden escaping from the worldly turmoil 
are investigated in detail through his works. Al- 
though the unusual Thoreau is still criticized pro 
and con, he is worthy of study and reinterpretation. 

NATURAL HISTORY , edited by Walter Harding. ~~ 

Several years ago Mr. Albert Lownes of Providence, 
Rhode Island, called to my attention the fact that 
Thoreau 's letter of October 19, I860, to the Boston 
Society of N a tural History, reporting the killing of 
a Canada lynx in Carlisle, Mass., had been printed 
in part in the society's Proceedings . In running 
down that clue, I discovered that Thoreau 's name oc- 
curred surprisingly frequently in the society's 
records. I have herewith gathered these Thoreau 
entries together: 

PROCEEDINGS, III (1848-1851), 383. 

"Mr. Henry D. Thoreau of Concord, Mass. was elect- 
ed a Corresponding member. " 

The election occurred at the meeting of December 
18, 1850, and was undoubtedly the result of Tho- 
reau 's having given the society an American gos- 

PROCEEDINGS, V (1854-1856), 86. 

"Books Received during the Quarter Ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1854: ... A Week on the Concord and Mer- 
rimack Rivers, By Henry D. Thoreau. 12 mo. Boston, 

"Walden; or Life in the Woods. By the Same. 12 
mo. Boston, 1854. From the author." 

PROCEEDINGS, VI (I856-I859), 430. 

"Specimens of Pomotis and Esox, and of amphibi- 
ans, were presented by Mr. H. D. Thoreau, from 
Concord, Mass. Mr. Putnam was of opinion that one 
of the Pomotis would prove a new species." 

This information was reported at the meeting of 
December 15, 1858. 

PROCEEDINGS, VI (1856-1859), 431. 

"Donations to Museum . . . December 15. Speci- 
mens of young Pomotis . Esox . and frogs, from Con- 
cord, Mass., by H. D. Thoreau." 

PROCEEDINGS, VII (1859-1861), 355. 

"A letter was read from Mr. H. D. Thoreau, of 
Concord, Mass., in reference to a Canada lynx 
( Lynx Canadensis ), killed in Carlisle, Mass., 
Sept. 9, I860)." 

The letter was read at the meeting of October 
17, 1860, and is quoted in part in the Proceedings . 
The letter is reproduced in facsimile in Thoreau 
Society Bulletin 15 (April, 1946). 

PROCEEDINGS, VII (1859-61), 430. 

"Books Received During the Quarter ending Dec. 
31, 1860. . . Transactions of the Middlesex Agri- 
cultural Society for 1860. 8vo. Concord, I860. 
From H. D. Thoreau." 

This volume includes Thoreau 's "An Address on 
the Succession of Forest Trees." 

PROCEEDINGS, IX (1862-1863), 70-72. 

A notice by C. T. Jackson of Thoreau 's death and 
a list of his donations to the society. These have 
been reprinted in Thoreau Society Bulletins 17 
(October, 1946) and 68 (Summer, 1959). 

PROCEEDINGS, IX (1862-1863), 152. 

"Donations to the Museum . . . May 21, 1862. A 
collection of upwards of one thousand species of 
the plants of New England; a collection of plants 
of Minnesota; a large number of the nests and eggs 
of the birds of New England; a collection of Indian 
antiquities, consisting of stone implements of art 
and warfare, mostly from Concord, Mass., by the 
bequest of Mr. H. D. Thoreau." 


We are indebted to the following for informa- 
tion used in this bulletin: R.Adams, H.Adel,T. 
Bailey, E.Anderson,N. Caldwell, M.Campbell, R.Dic- 
kens, M.Ferguson,E.Freniere, H.Gottschalk,I. 
Hoover, J.Haynes, A.Kovar, F.Oliver, F.James, 
S.Sherwin, E.Schofield, and E.Wilson. Please 
keep the secretary informed of new Thoreauviana 
as it appears. 


The cost of printing this bulletin has been cover- 
ed by the life memberships of Mr. Newt Caldwell, Wash- 
ington, D.C.; T.L.Eailey, Cleveland, Ohio; and Miss 
Margaret Meuttrnan, Cincinnati, Ohio. Life membership 
in the society is $25.00. We would also like to ac- 
knowledge the contributions of Paul Williams, Chatham, 
N.J.; James Sisson, Berkeley, Calif., and Jarvis Bar- 
low, Los Angeles, Calif. 

We are very much indebted to Mr. Samuel Wellman of 
Cleveland, Ohio, who has just reprinted for us Tho- 
reau Society Bulletins 12 and 13 that have long been 
out of print. They are now thus available from the 
secretary for 25£ each. Bulletins 1-9 are available 
together in a reprint for 50£. All other bulletins, 
except 26, 44, 49, 51, 55, and 59 which have just re- 
cently gone out of print, are available from the sec- 
retary for 25£ each. Booklets 1, 2, and 4 sre out of 
print, but Booklets 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, and 15 are 
available at 25£ each, and Booklets 9, 11, 12, and 
13 at $1.00 each. 

Emil A. Freniere is compiling "A Thoreau Log: 1837- 
1847," similar to the Jay Leyda logs on Melville and 
Emily Dickinson, as his doctoral dissertation at Perm. 
State University. 

The Smithsonian Institution is currently circulating 
to museums over the country a collection of 76 color 
photographs by Eliot Porter, each accompanied by a 
quotation from Thoreau. 

James A. Michener's "In Defense of Beatniks," PHILA- 
DELPHIA BULLETIN, Aug. 7, I960, describes Thoreau as 
an early beatnik. 

Anton Kovar (9 Court St., Arlington, Mass.) asks 
where the following quotation can be found in Thoreau: 
"Woe be to the generation that lets any higher faculty 
in its midst go unemployed." Can anyone help? 

Howard Zahniser of Washington, D.C., writes, "The 
first paragraph quoted on page 124 of the "Lntiroductio 
to CONSCIOUSNESS IN CONCORD by Perry Miller is on 
page 477^ Vol. II of Thoreau' s JOURNAL. This is part 
of the Journal for September 7, 1851. The two para- 
graphs are almost identical in language, as they in- 
deed are in content. Professor Miller was under the 
impression that this had 'never been published.' 
Readers who will again peruse Professor Miller's dis- 
cussion and quotation on pages 123 and 125 of CON- 
SCIOUSNESS IN CONCORD will find interesting both the 
1906 publication of this paragraph and also its in- 
clusion in the entry for September 7, 1851, the day's 
journal that likewise included the sentence, 'Nothing 
is so much to be feared as fear, ' and the complaint, 
'I cannot easily buy a blank-book to write thoughts 
in; they are all ruled for dollars and cents. 1 " 

Dr. John Robinson Pierce, inventor of the balloon 
satelite "Echo I," when interviewed after its suc- 
cessful launching on Aug. 13, I960, said, "It was 
not necessary to copy the Russians in everything. 
Maybe we are listening to another drummer," and point- 
ed out his reference was to the passage in WALDEN. 

The comic strip "Little Orphan Annie" for Sept. 11, 
I960, quotes Thoreau 's "I would rather sit on a pump- 
kin and have it all to myself than be crowded on a 
velvet cushion." 

Franklin Willard Hamilton is working on a disserta- 
tion on "Henry David Thoreau 's Ideas for Self -Educa- 
tion of the Individual, as Expressed in His Journal, 
1837-1862" for the Dept. of Education of the Univer- 
sity of Kansas. 

John F. Jacques is working on a dissertation on 
"Thoreau's THE MAINE WOODS" at Columbia University. 

An advertisement in the NEW YORK TIMES for August 
28, I960, by the Julie Research Laboratories, asking 
for electronic engineers, states that they a re look- 
ing for one who "Marches to a different drumbeat 


As this bulletin goes to press, it has just been 
announced that Thoreau has been elected to the New 
York University Hall of Fame, along with Thomas Ed- 
ison and Edward MacDowell. He received 83 votes 
out of a possible 142. Necessary for election: 72. 
We hope to have more details in our next bulletin. 
Mrs. Ruth E. Ballenger, Manuscripts Librarian of 
the Rutherford B. Hayes Library in Fremont, Ohio, 
has called our attention to the following entry in 
the diary of President Hayes for April 2, 1885: 
Went with Lucy to church. — From there I went 
to the High School Building & heard Prof. Fin- 
ley, of Akrcn read a fair paper on Thoreau. T. 
was a man of gifts and culture. Si -pie, sincere, 
and brave. But he failed in his duties. He 
was not a good citizen, not a patriot; 'never 
married, never went To church, never voted, and 
never paid a tax' said Prof. F. To this I 
added, 'and it is a satisfaction that he did go 
to jail' J as he ought. This will do as a -joke. 
Mrs. Ballenger also quotes from a letter to Hayes 
from Alexis Cope, Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 
on December 9, 1892: 

I enclose the extr=ct from Thoreau's "Walden" 
which I spoke of. By the way, if you have not 
read the book I think many things in it will 
interest you. 
To me he is a most refreshing Pajon, and his 
books a constant refreshment in leisure hours. 
I would send you some of them but my son has 
packed them up and carried fehmm away with him. 
Both of these quotations are from manuscripts in 
the Futherford B. Hayes Library in Freemont, Ohio. 
Four pacifists have recently been picketing the 
ri "Polaris nuclear submarines in Groton, Conn. They 
have named the rowboat in which they picket the 
"Henry David Thoreau." 

Sean 0'Casey in "Out, Damned Spot" in the May, 
1960 THEATRE ARTS, says, "There are other great 
minds in the fie Id, too. . . Thoreau, who could see 
God's face shining from a duck pond, a face of peace, 
or a face agitated within the whirl of a millrsce." 

According to the CHRISTIAN 'SCIENCE MONITOR for 
Oct. 5, I960, when the Crown Prince and Crown Prin- 
cess of Japan recently visited the High School of 
Music and Art in New York City, "They listened with 
profound attention to a discussion of Thoreau in an 
English class." 

a number of prominent people to name their favorite 
books, the following included WALDEN on their list: 
Robert Traver (author of ANATOMY OF MURDER 0), S.J. 
Perelman, the humorist; and Dr. Preston Bradley, 
pastor of the Peoples Church of Chicago. 
Remarkable Coincidence Department : 

"As if you could kill time without injuring 
eternity."— Thoreau, WALDEN (I854). 

"In this place, instead of killing time we 
have to kill eternity."— G.B.Shaw, MAN AND SUPER- 
MAN, (New York: Brentano, 1903, p. 113). 

Robert Musser Brown's new novel, BROTHER, WHICH 
DRUMMER? (New York, Harcourt, I960), apparently de- 
rives its title from the famous lines in WALDEN. 
Albert E. Lownes of Providence, R.I., calls to 
our attention a copy of THE MAINE WOODS in his 
possession, dated 1864, but labeled "Second Edition," 
Since the first edition is also dated 1864, it 
would seem to indicate that the first edition had 
sold out almost immediately. 

An article in the BOSTON HOME JOURNAL for Jan. 17, 
1903 by Henry Waterman, entitled "Concord's Famous 
Son," states that when Thoreau was a student at Har- 

vard, he first lived in 20 Hollis, then 31, then 32, 
and finally 23. They give no indication as to the 
source of their information. But this is the first 
time I have seen his dormitory room numbers given 
so specifically. Can anyone help authenticate 
this data? 


Adams, Raymond. "Thoreau — Surveyor in the Survey 
2-3. An essay in a symposium on teaching Thoreau 
in college classes. 

Bode, Carl. "Thoreau: The Double Negative" in THE 
ger, I960. One of a series of lectures delivered 
at the American Embassy in London. "Thoreau is nev- 
er merily negative. He is eager to replace the val- 
ues he dislikes with nobler ones." (pp. 3-22). 

Broderick, John C. "Teaching Thoreau." ESQ,XVIII 
(I960), 3-5. Another essay in the symposium. 

Cameron, Kenneth Walter. "Thoreau and John Evelyn." 
ESQ, XVIII (I960), 35. On the source of a Thoreau 
quotation from Evelyn. 

. "Two Pages of Thoreau' s Notes for CAPE COD." 

ESQ, XIX (I960), 38-9. Notes on a newly discover- 
ed manuscript of Thoreau. 

. "Thoreau in the Papers of Nathan Brooks and 

Abel Moore." ESQ, XIX (i960), 42-5. Inventory of 
some MSS in the Concord Free Public Library. 

. "Thoreau in the Memoirs of the Concord Social 

Circle." ESQ (XIX), 45-6. Reprints of reminiscences 
of Thoreau' s neighbors. 

. "Historical Notes on the Concord Academy." ESQ, 

(XIX), 46-51. Reprints various newspaper notices in- 
cluding some of Thoreau' s teaching there. 

Chase, Mary Ellen. THE LOVELY AMBITION. New York: 
Norton, i960. 288pp. $3.95. A delightful novel a- 
bout an English clergyman who worships Thoreau and 
eventually comes to America to live. A long passage 
(pp. 63-6) discusses his love of Thoreau in particu- 
lar. Any Thoreauvian should surely enjoy this novel. 

Cobb, Robert P. "Thoreau and 'the Wild.'" ESQ, XVIII 
(I960), 5-7. Another essay in the symposium. 

Cook, Reginald L. "Teaching Thoreau at Middlebury." 
ESQ, XVIII (I960), 7-9. More of the same. 

Cooke, George Willis. "Emerson and Thoreau in the In- 
dex to THE DIAL." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 44-9. Reprinted 
from the Rowfant Club edition of THE DIAL. 

Davidson, Frank. "A Reading of WALDEN." ESQ, XVIII 
(I960), 9-11. Part of the symposium. 

Evans, Robert. "Blazing a Trail with Thoreau." BOS- 
TON GLOBE. Sept. 11,12,13,14,15,16,17, I960. A 
series of articles telling of Evans' retracing of 
Thoreau 's WEEK journey. 

NOTEBOOKS. Vol. I. Edited by William Gilman 66 al. 
Cambridge: Harvard, I960. 430pp. $10. The first 
volume of a projected 16 volume definitive edition 
of E's journals and notebooks. Not only do they in- 
clude many important items omitted from the earlier 
10 volume edition, but they also correct many mis- 
readings. This first volume covers the years 1819- 
1822, so there is little directly about Thoreau in 
it. But nonetheless it is decidedly important for 
the Thoreau scholar because it gives us so many new 
insights into his closest friend. The editorial work 
is a marvel to behold. Never have we seen an edition 
that so clearly and definitively represents a manu- 
script with all its cancellations, interlineations, 
and so on. It is a model of editorial practice. It 
is to be hoped that scholars and libraries will do 


their best to encourr-ge the efforts of the editor- 
ial board and the publishers to complete this pro- 
Emans, Elaine V. "Thought for Thoreau." CHRISTIAN 

SCIENCE MONITOR. Oct. 29, I960. A poem. 
Feidelson, Charles Jr. "Three Views of the Human 
Yale University: Master of Arts in Teaching Pro- 
gram. I960. $1.00. pp. 47-52. 
Golden, Harry. "We All Need a Bit of Solitude." 
Thoreau teaches us the values of loneliness. 
Harding, Walter. A THOREAU HANDBOOK. Review. 



Rinehart, 4 Winston, I960. 251pp. *2.00. A col- 
lection of nearly 100 reminiscences of Thoreau, 
including some hitherto unpublished. 
. The Same. Review. CONCORD JOURNAL. Nov. 

10, i960. 

. "On Teaching WALDEN." ESQ, XVITI (i960), 

11-12. Part cf symposium. 

Kern, Alexander. "Introducing Thoreau as Artist 
and Man." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 12-14. The same. 

Kleine, Don W. "Civil Disobedience: The Way to 
Walden." MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, LXXV (April, i960) 
297-304. The essay and the book are consistent 
in philosophy. 

Kurtz, Kenneth. "Thoreau and Individualism Today." 
ESQ, XVIII (I960), 14-15. Part of symposium. 

Leighton, Caroline C. A SWISS THOREAU. Boston, 
1890. A pamphlet comparing Thoreau with Amiel. 

Lombardo, Agostino. "L'arte di Henry David Thoreau" 
BELFAG0R, XIV (Nov. 30, 1959), 674-685. 

Ludwig, Jack. "Confusions: Thoreau in California." 
NOBLE SAVAGE, I (i960), 203-248. An hilarious 
short story about a beatnik worshiper of Thoreau. 

Maclean, Hugh N. "The Pattern of WALDEN." THE 
ELENSIS OF CHI OMEGA, LXII (Kay, I960), 235-9. 

Marx, Leo. "Walden as Transcendental Pastoral." 
ESQ, XVIII (I960), 16-17. Part of symposium. 

Moiles, Bill. "Thoreau Put No Faith in Groundhog 
Day." WORCESTER TELEGRAM. Feb. 2, I960. On T. 
and woodchucks. 

"Thoreau' s Voice Still Stirs His Country- 
men." WORCESTER TELEGRAM. On current popularity 
of Thoreau. 

Munoz, Vladimir. "En Filosofo de Walden." CENIT, 
X (April, I960), 2989-2994. An extended discus- 
sion of Thoreau' s thought. 

. "Thoreau y Hudson." V0LUNTAD (Montevideo, 

Uruguay), IV (May, I960). 

Oehser, Paul. "Thoreau: Exponent of Silence." CON- 
CORD JOURNAL. July 14, I960. The I960 presiden- 
tial address. 

Calcutta: A.K.Banerji, 1958. 

Pederson, Lee A. "La Fuente del Lema de Thoreau en 
Desobediencia Civil." V0LUNTAD, IV (May, i960). 
Trans, from TSB into Spanish by V. Munoz. 

Poole, Lynn. "Henry Thoreau Wanted to Live." TO- 
LEDO BLADE. July 3, I960. On Thoreau at Walden. 
Apparently syndicated in many newspapers. 

Rowlands, John J. SPINDRIFT. New York: Norton, 
I960. Includes comments on Tudor 's cutting of the 
ice on Walden Pond in 1845 (pp. 70-2) and on T's 
visit to Cape Cod (pp. 202-4). 

Schiller, Andrew. "Thoreau in the Undergraduate 
Survey Course." ESQ, XVIII (i960), 17-19. Part 
of the symposium. 

Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley. ROBERT FROST: THE 

TRIAL BY EXISTENCE. New York: Holt, I960. Many 
comments on Frost's interest in Thoreau. 

Seybold, Ethel. "Thoreau for Everyone." ESQ, XVII I 
(I960), 19-21. In the symposium. 

Sherwin, J.Stephen St Richard C. Reynolds. A WORD 
le: Univ. of Va. Press, I960. 165pp. $8.00. 
Thoreau scholars have long felt the need for a con- 
cordance of WALDEN and at last the need is filled. 
Here is an index of every single word in the book, 
giving the exact location as to page and line of 
each occurence except for the 122 words that occur 
more frequently than 100 times each — and for these 
there is a word count. But the book has other uses 
as well as those of a concordance. New insight is 
given into Thoreau' s vocabulary and its patterns of 
usage. And so carefully have the authors studied 
word variants that they have provided a number of 
new insights into Thoreau' s exact meaning. We hope 
in a future issue of our bulletin to persuade them 
to present some of their new findings. Meanwhile 
all students of WALDEN will find this volume a tre- 
mendously handy reference work. 

. The Same. Reviews. ROCHESTER TIKES-UNION, 

Nov. 7, I960. BUFFALO EVENING NEWS. Sept. 24,1960. 

Shepard, Odell. "Approaching Thoreau Through Mod- 
ern Scholarship." ESQ, XVIII (i960), 23-26. More 
in the symposium. 

Shuman, R. Baird. "Thoreau 's Passage on the 'Fro- 
zen-Thawed' Apple." ESQ,XVIII (i960), 34-5. A 
hitherto unknown 1-page draft of a portion of "Wild 
Apples" reveals some minor word variations. 

Sibley, Celestine. "Thoreau Spoiled Work Plans at 
Cabin." BUFFALO COURIER EXPRESS. July ?, I960. T. 
is used to justify loafing on a vacation. 

Smith, Edwin S. "A Thoreau for Today, II" MAINSTREAM 
XIII (May, I960), 42-55. Second part of an extend- 
ed discussion of Thoreau's significance today. 

(I960), 42. Reprinting of obituary of 1876. 

Strauch, Carl F. "The Essential Romanticism of Tho- 
reau's WALDEN." ESQ, XVIII (i960), 21-23. Another 
essay in the symposium. 

Teale, Edwin Way. "Thoreau y el Reinado del Tierapo" 
EL PLATA (Montevideo, Uruguay). June 28,1959. Tho- 
reau Society 1953 presidential address trans, into 
Spanish by V. Munoz. 

Urzidil, Johannes. "Henry David Thoreau oder Natur 
und Freideit." CASTRUM PEREGRINI, XXX (1956), 13-31. 

SELECTIONS. Chicago: Great Books Foundation, 1954. 


PR0P0S PAR LEON BAZALGETTE. Paris: Rieder, 1921. 
Includes "Life without Principle," "Civil Disobed- 
ience," "Slavery in Massachusetts," etc. 


Uruguay: Ediciones Voluntad, I960. "Slavery in Mass- 
achusetts" trans, in Spanish by Vladimir Munoz, with 
an intoduction by Walter Harding. 

TAD. Buenos Aires, I960. A translation into Span- 
ish of Oscar Cargill's H.D.T. : SELECTED WRITINGS 

. "Of Books and Their Titles." Edited by R. 

Baird Shuman. ESQ, XVIII (I960), 26-34. First ac- 
curate transcription of one of T's college essays 
with a facsimile of the MS. 

. OPERA SCELTE. Venezia: Neri-Pozza. 195? 

Trans, into Italian by Piero Sanavio. xlv, 642pp. 


Volkman. Review. VOLUNTAD. Aug. I960. 


Paramdham Vidyapith, 1957. (2nded.). 11,86. "E- 
conomy" from WALDEN trans, into Hindu by Vaman J. 

. "To Edith." Edited by Kenneth W. Cameron. 

ESQ, XVIII (I960), 40-41. First publication of a 
hitherto unknown poem by Thoreau. 


Pattlock, 1946. 55PP. Trans, of "Friendship." 

. "Vida sin Principios." VOLUNTAD, IV (May, 

I960). Trans, of "Life without Principle" into 
Spanish by V. Munoz. 


Joseph Wood Krutch. New York: Libra Collection, 
I960. 297pp. $13.75. One of the most beautiful 
editions of WALDEN ever published. Large pages; 
large, clear print; illustrated with 24 woodcuts 
from the ancient Chinese drawing manuals of the 
Mustard Seeds Garden studio — woodcuts that mirror 
exactly the strength s nd simplicity and beauty of 
the text itself; bound in a beautiful, rough-finish 
green cloth, and doubly boxed. It is hard to imag- 
ine a more beautifully conceived edition. The pre- 
face by Mr. Krutch is brief, but very much to the 
point. Scholars however will be disturbed by the 
fact that the "complemental verses" at the end of 
the first chapter have been omitted and that the 
text itself perpetuates sone of the errors that 
have crept into printings since the first edition. 
The Same. Trans, into Spanish by J.Garate. 
Review. VOLUNTAD. Sept. I960. 

. The Same. Edited with n^tes by H. Demizu. 

Tokyo: Kairyudo, 19//. 177pp. Selections. 

. A WRITER'S JOURNAL. Selected and edited 

with an introduction by Laurence Stalpleton. New 
York: Dover, I960. 234pp. $1.55. An anthology of 
selections from Thoreau's JOURNAL with particular 
emphasis upon his comments on writing as an art 
and with several long sequences not hitherto avail- 
able in anything but the full JOURNAL. A percep- 
tive introduction concentrating on Thoreau's inter- 
est in "relatedness" — the tieing together of the 
phenomena of the universe. 
Wheeler, Ruth R. "Ts?ac Hecker and Concord." CONCORD 
JOURNAL. May 5, I960. Including his stay with the 
Thoreau s. 
Whicher, Stephen. "An Appointment in American Lit- 
erature" COLLEGE ENGLISH, XXI (May, i960), 466-9. 
Includes some pleasant spoofs on current Thoreau 
White, William. "Three Unpublished Thoreau Letters" 
Prints fuller texts of the letters of Sept. 25, 
1843 from Margaret Fuller; of April 13, 1855 and 
Aug. 8, 1855 to George William Curtis. 
House Changes." Feb. 2, I960. Photograph of Wor- 
cester house where Thoreau often visited Theo 

The Thoreau Society Inc. is an informal organiza- 
tion of students and followers of Henry David Tho- 
reau. Officers of the society are Prof. Carl Bode, 
College Park, Md. ; Mrs. Gladys Hosraer, Concord, Mass. 
vice-president; and V/alter Harding, secretary-treas- 
urer. Annual membership is two dollars; life mem- 
bership, twenty-five dollars. Communications con- 
cerning membership or publications should be address- 
ed to the secretary: 

Walter Harding 

State University College of Education 

Geneseo, New York.